Codebreakers: Makers of Modern Genetics digital collection curated by the Wellcome Library.

Datasets from ‘TRANSGENE: Medical Translation in the History of Modern Genomics project’.

Entry on ‘Genomics and Postgenomics‘ in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, written by Stephan Guttinger and John Dupré.

Genetics and Medicine Historical Network, hosted by the European Society of Human Genetics

Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990–2003

Oral History collection of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives, genomic research section.

Oral History Collection of the National Human Genome Research Institute’s History of Genomics Program

Project website for: ‘TRANSGENE: Medical Translation in the History of Modern Genomics

Website for the US National Human Genome Research Institute

What is Biotechnology?



A Cultural History of Heredity‘, by Staffan Müller-Wille and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (The University of Chicago Press, 2012)

Venter, J. C. (2008). A Life Decoded: My Genome, My Life. London, UK: Penguin Books.

‘A Machine to Make a Future: Biotech Chronicles’, by Paul Rabinow and Talia Dan-Cohen (Princeton University Press, 2004)

‘A Short History of Medical Genetics’, by Peter S. Harper (Oxford University Press, 2008)

‘Biology, Computing and the History of Molecular Sequencing: From Proteins to DNA’, by Miguel García-Sancho (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2012)

‘Collecting Experiments: Making Big Data Biology’, by Bruno J. Strasser (The University of Chicago Press, 2019)

‘CyberGenetics: Health genetics and new media’, by Anna Harris, Susan Kelly and Sally Wyatt (Routledge, 2016)

Data Journeys in the Sciences‘, edited by Sabina Leonelli and Niccolò Tempini (Springer, 2020), especially pages 145–170 and 305–328.

‘Data-Centric Biology: A Philosophical Study’, by Sabina Leonelli (The University of Chicago Press, 2016).

‘French DNA. Trouble in Purgatory’, by Paul Rabinow (The University of Chicago Press, 1999)

‘From Molecular Genetics to Genomics: The mapping cultures of twentieth-century genetics’, edited by Jean-Paul Gaudillière and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (Routledge, 2004)

Falk, R. (2009). Genetic Analysis: A History of Genetic Thinking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

‘Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction’, by Paul Griffiths and Karola Stotz (Cambridge University Press, 2013)

‘Genomes and What to Make of Them’, by Barry Barnes and John Dupré (The University of Chicago Press, 2008)

‘Heredity Under the Microscope: Chromosomes and the Study of the Human Genome’, by Soraya de Chadarevian (The University of Chicago Press, 2020)

‘Life Histories of Genetic Disease: Patterns and Prevention in Postwar Medical Genetics’, by Andrew Hogan (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016)

‘Life Out of Sequence: A Data-Driven History of Bioinformatics’, by Hallam Stevens (University of Chicago Press, 2013)

‘Moments of Truth in Genetic Medicine’, by M. Susan Lindee (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005)

‘Nature After the Genome’, edited by Sarah Parry and John Dupré (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)

‘New Genetics, New Identities’, edited by Paul Atkinson, Peter Glasner and Helen Greenslade (Routledge, 2007)

‘New Genetics, New Social Formations’, edited by Peter Glasner, Paul Atkinson and Helen Greenslade (Routledge, 2007)

‘Postgenomics: Perspectives on Biology after the Genome’, edited by Sarah S. Richardson and Hallam Stevens (Duke University Press, 2015)

‘Reordering Life: Knowledge and Control in the Genomics Revolution’, by Stephen Hilgartner (MIT Press, 2017)

‘Routledge Handbook of Genomics, Health and Society’, edited by Sahra Gibbon, Barbara Prainsack, Stephen Hilgartner and Janelle Lamoreaux (Routledge, 2018)

‘The Black Box of Biology: A History of the Molecular Revolution’, by Michel Morange (Harvard University Press, 2020)

The Century of the Gene‘, by Evelyn Fox Keller (Harvard University Press, 2002)

‘The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project’, edited by Daniel Kevles and Leroy Hood (Harvard University Press, 1992)

Sulston, J., & Ferry, G. (2002). The Common Thread: A Story of Science, Politics, Ethics and the Human Genome. London, UK: Bantam Press.

The Gene: From Genetics to Postgenomics‘, by Hans-Jörg Rheinberger and Staffan Müller-Wille; translated by Adam Bostanci (The University of Chicago Press, 2017)

‘The Gene Wars: Science, Politics, and the Human Genome’, by Robert Cook-Deegan (Norton, 1994)

‘The Genealogy of a Gene: Patents, HIV/AIDS, and Race’, by Myles W. Jackson (The MIT Press, 2015)

‘The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine’, by Nathaniel Comfort (Yale University Press, 2014), especially chapter 7.

‘Travelling around the Human Genome: An in situ investigation’, by Bertrand Jordan (INSERM, 1993).


Book chapters:

Michael Fortun, “Projecting Speed Genomics,” in The Practices of Human Genetics, ed. Michael Fortun and Everett Mendelsohn (Dordrecht: Springer, 1999), 25–48.

Michael Fortun, “Celera Genomics: The Race for the Human Genome Sequence,” in Living with the Genome: Ethical and Social Aspects of Human Genetics, ed. Angus Clarke and Flo Ticehurst (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006), 27–32.

Fujimura J (2000) ‘Transnational genomics: Transgressing the boundary between the modern West and the premodern East.’ In Doing Science + Culture, Reid D, Traweek S (eds) pp 71-92. New York: Routledge

Stephen Hilgartner, “Mapping Systems and Moral Order: Constituting Property in Genome Laboratories,” in States of Knowledge: The Co-production of Science and Social Order, ed. Sheila Jasanoff (New York: Routledge, 2004), 131–141.

Pierre-Benoît Joly and Vincent Mangematin, “How Long Is Co-operation in Genomics Sustainable?” in The Social Management of Genetic Engineering, ed. Peter Wheale, Rene von Schomberg and Peter Glasner (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 77–90.

Peter Keating, Camille Limoges, and Alberto Cambrosio, “The Automated Laboratory: The Generation and Replication of Work in Molecular Genetics,” in The Practices of Human Genetics, ed. Michael Fortun and Everett Mendelsohn (Dordrecht: Springer, 1999), 125–142.

Vololona Rabeharisoa and Michel Callon, “Patients and scientists in French muscular dystrophy research,” in States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and Social Order, ed. Sheila Jasanoff (Routledge, 2004), 142–160.

von Schwerin, A. (2013). From Agriculture to Genomics: The Animal Side of Human Genetics and the Organization of Model Organisms in the Longue Durée. In B. Gausemeier, S. Müller-Wille & E. Ramsden (Eds.), Human Heredity in the Twentieth Century (pp. 113-125). London: Pickering & Chatto.

Dirk Stemerding and Steven Hilgartner, “Means of coordination in making biological science: on the mapping of plants, animals and genes,” in Getting New Technologies Together: Studies in Making Sociotechnical Order, ed. Cornelis Disco and Barend van der Meulen (New York: de Gruyter, 1998), 39–69.


Journal special issues:



Journal articles:

Alfredo Aguilar, Etienne Magnien, and Daniel Thomas, “Thirty years of European biotechnology programmes: from biomolecular engineering to the bioeconomy,” New Biotechnology 30, no. 5 (2013): 410–425.

Christine Aicardi and Miguel García-Sancho, “Towards future archives and historiographies of ‘big biology’,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55 (2016): 41–44.

Rachel A. Ankeny (2001). Model Organisms as Models: Understanding the ‘Lingua Franca’ of the Human Genome Project. Philosophy of Science, 68, S251–S261.

Ankeny, R. (2001). The natural history of Caenorhabditis Elegans research. Nature Reviews. Genetics, 2(6), 474-478.

Ankeny, R. (2003). Sequencing the genome from nematode to human: changing methods, changing science. Endeavour, 27(2), 87-92.

Rachel Ankeny, “Historiographic Reflections on Model Organisms: Or How the Mureaucracy May Be Limiting our Understanding of Contemporary Genetics and Genomics,” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2010): 91–104.

Rachel A. Ankeny (2017). Geneticization in MIM/OMIM®? Exploring Historic and Epistemic Drivers of Contemporary Understandings of Genetic Disease. The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine, Volume 42, Issue 4, Pages 367–384.

Brian Balmer, “Managing Mapping in the Human Genome Project,” Social Studies of Science 26, no. 3 (1996): 531–573.

Bostanci, A. (2006). Two drafts, one genome? Human diversity and human genome research. Science as Culture, 15, 183–198.

Chow-White, P.A., & García-Sancho, M. (2012). Bidirectional Shaping and Spaces of Convergence: Interactions between Biology and Computing from the First DNA Sequencers to Global Genome Databases. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 37, 124–164.

John M. Conley, Robert Cook-Deegan, and Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, “Myriad after Myriad: The Proprietary Data Dilemma,” North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology 15, no. 4 (2014): 597–637.

Cook-Deegan, R., Ankeny, R., & Jones, K. (2017). Sharing Data to Build a Medical Information Commons: From Bermuda to the Global Alliance. Annual Review of Human Genetics and Genomics, 18(1), 389-415.

Robert Cook-Deegan and Christopher Heaney, “Patents in Genomics and Human Genetics,” Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 11 (2010): 383–425.

Mark R. Costa, Jian Qin, and Sarah Bratt, “Emergence of collaboration networks around large scale data repositories: a study of the genomics community using GenBank,” Scientometrics 108 (2016): 21–40.

Emmanuel Didier, “Open-Access Genomic Databases: A Profit-Making Tool?,” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 48, no. 5 (2018): 659–672.

Bernard Dujon, “My route to the intimacy of genomes,” FEMS Yeast Research 19, no. 3 (2019): foz023.

García-Sancho M (2011) ‘From Metaphor to Practices: the Introduction of “Information Engineers” into the First DNA Sequence Database.’ History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33: 71-104.

Miguel García-Sancho, “The proactive historian: Methodological opportunities presented by the new archives documenting genomics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55 (2016): 70–82.

Glasner, P. (2002). Beyond the genome: Reconstituting the new genetics. New Genetics and Society, 21, 267–277.

Peter Glasner and Harry Rothman, “Does familiarity breed concern? Bench scientists and the Human Genome Mapping Project,” Science and Public Policy 26, no. 4 (1999), 233–240.

James M. Heather and Benjamin Chain (2016). The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA. Genomics, volume 107, pages 1–8.

Jeff Hemsley, Jian Qin, and Sarah E. Bratt, “Data to knowledge in action: A longitudinal analysis of GenBank metadata,” Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology 57, no. 1 (2020): e253.

Hilgartner, S. (2013). Constituting Large-Scale Biology: Building a Regime of Governance in the Early Years of the Human Genome Project. BioSocieties, 8, 397–416.

Hogan, A. J. (2014). The ‘Morbid Anatomy’ of the Human Genome: Tracing the Observational and Representational Approaches of Postwar Genetics and Biomedicine. Medical History, 58, 315–336.

James W. E. Lowe, “Sequencing through thick and thin: Historiographical and philosophical implications,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 72 (2018): 10–27.

James W. E. Lowe and Ann Bruce, “Genetics without genes? The centrality of genetic markers in livestock genetics and genomics,” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41: 50.

Kathryn Maxson Jones, Rachel A. Ankeny, and Robert Cook-Deegan, “The Bermuda Triangle: The Pragmatics, Policies, and Principles for Data Sharing in the History of the Human Genome Project,” Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2018): 693–805.

Bob Kuska (1998). Beer, Bethesda, and Biology: How “Genomics” Came Into Being. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 90, Issue 2, Page 93.

Hans‐Werner Mewes, “The bioinformatics of the yeast genome—A historical perspective,” Yeast 36 (2019): 161–165.

Nadim, T. (2016). Data Labours: How the Sequence Databases GenBank and EMBL-Bank Make Data. Science as Culture, 25, 496–519.

Brigitte Nerlich & Iina Hellsten (2004) Genomics: shifts in metaphorical landscape between 2000 and 2003, New Genetics and Society, 23:3, 255-268,

Joseph November (2018). More than Moore’s Mores: Computers, Genomics, and the Embrace of Innovation. Journal of the History of Biology, 51, 807–840.

Onaga, L. A. (2014). Ray Wu as Fifth Business: Deconstructing collective memory in the history of DNA sequencing. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 46, 1–14.

Alexander Powell, Maureen A. O’Malley, Staffan Müller-Wille, Jane Calvert, and John Dupré, “Disciplinary Baptisms: A Comparison of the Naming Stories of Genetics, Molecular Biology, Genomics, and Systems Biology,” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29, no. 1 (2007): 5–32.

Rajagopalan, R. M., & Fujimura, J. H. (2018). Variations on a Chip: Technologies of Difference in Human Genetics Research. Journal of the History of Biology, 51, 841–873.

Reardon, J., Ankeny, R., Bangham, J., Darling, K., Hilgartner, S., Jones, K., . . . Waterston, R. (2016). Bermuda 2.0: Reflections from Santa Cruz. GigaScience, 5(1), 1-4.

Jennifer Shaw, “Documenting genomics: Applying archival theory to preserving therecords of the Human Genome Project,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55 (2016): 61–69.

Stevens, H. (2011). Coding Sequences: A History of Sequence Comparison Algorithms as a Scientific Instrument. Perspectives on Science, 19(3), 263–299.

Stevens, H. (2011). On the means of bio-production: Bioinformatics and how to make knowledge in a high-throughput genomics laboratory. BioSocieties, 6, 217–242.

Hallam Stevens, “Globalizing Genomics: The Origins of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration,” Journal of the History of Biology 51 (2018): 657–691.

Bruno Strasser, “Collecting, comparing, and computing sequences: the making of Margaret O. Dayhoff’s Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, 1954–1965,” Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2010): 623–660.

Strasser, B. J. (2011). The Experimenter’s Museum: GenBank, Natural History, and the Moral Economies of Biomedicine. Isis, 102, 60–96.

Edna Suárez-Díaz, “Making Room for New Faces: Evolution, Genomics and the Growth of Bioinformatics,” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2010): 65–89.

Edna Suárez-Díaz, “The Long and Winding Road of Molecular Data in Phylogenetic Analysis,” Journal of the History of Biology 47 (2014): 443–478.

Edna Suárez-Díaz and Victor H. Anaya-Muñoz, “History, objectivity, and the construction of molecular phylogenies,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 39 (2008): 451–468.

Erika Szymanski, Niki Vermeulen, and Mark Wong, “Yeast: One cell, one reference sequence, many genomes?,” New Genetics and Society 38 (2019): 430–450.

Niki Vermeulen, “Big Biology,” NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 24 (2016): 195–223.

Niki Vermeulen, John N. Parker, and Bart Penders, “Understanding life together: A brief history of collaboration in biology,” Endeavour 37, no. 3 (2013): 162–171.

Jean Weissenbach (2016). The rise of genomics (L’essor de la génomique). Comptes Rendus Biologies, Volume 339, pages 231–239.

Mark Wong and Rhodri Leng, “On the design of linked datasets mapping networks of collaboration in the genomic sequencing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, and Sus scrofa,” F1000 Research 8 (2019): 1200;



Andrew Bartlett, “Accomplishing Sequencing the Human Genome” (PhD dissertation, Cardiff University, 2008).

Michael Fortun, “Mapping and making genes and histories: the genomics project in the United States, 1980-1990” (PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1993)

Erika M. Langer, “Molecular Ferment: The Rise and Proliferation of Yeast Model Organism Research” (PhD Thesis, University of California San Francisco, 2016)

Vincent Ramillon, “Le Deux Génomiques. Mobiliser, Organiser, Produire: Du Séquençage À La Mesure De L’expression Des Gènes,” (PhD dissertation, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 2007)



Emma M. Jones and Elizabeth M. Tansey, eds., Human Gene Mapping Workshops c.1973–c.1991: The transcript of a Witness Seminar held by the History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group, Queen Mary University of London, on 25 March 2014 (London: Queen Mary University of London, 2015). Available online at:

Giuditta Parolini, Building Human and Industrial Capacity in European Biotechnology: The Yeast Genome Sequencing Project (1989–1996) (Berlin: Technische Universität Berlin, 2018). Available online at: (

Jenny Reardon, “The Genomic Open,” Limn 6, 2016:

National Academy of Sciences, “Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome” (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1988)